Washington Coast Shellfish Aquaculture Timeline

2020
2020
Coast Shellfish
Ecosystem-based Management Project

 

April

Working group webinar 3: Synthesis report and historical shellfish aquaculture timeline (Workshop 2 postponed due to COVID-19)

2020
Coast Shellfish
Ecosystem-based Management Project

 

February

Working group webinar 2: Updates from science partners

2019
2019
Coast Shellfish 
Ecosystem-based Management Project

 

October

Working group webinar 1: Orientation and ecosystem-based management primer October 2019 – Workshop 1: State-of-the-science presentations and information needs identified

2019
Coast Shellfish
Ecosystem-based Management Project

 

September

Working group formed

2019
burrowing shrimp

 

Settlement agreement to drop the appeal given support or research projects to develop the IPM plan. WGHOGA, WDOE.

2019
major anthropogenic physical disturbance 

 

Columbia River: rehabilitation of South Jetty commenced

2018
2018
Coast Shellfish
Ecosystem-based Management Project

 

Fall 

Washington Coast Shellfish Aquaculture Study initiated

2018
burrowing shrimp

 

Supplemental Final Impact Statement (SFEIS) for the use of imidacloprid to manage burrowing shrimp was released. Revised imidicloprid permit application denied. WDOE. Permit denial decision appealed to the Water Pollution Control Hearings Board. WGHOGA.

2018
major anthropogenic physical disturbance 

 

Columbia River: rehabilitation of North Jetty commenced

2018
BURROWING SHRIMP

 

Revised imidicloprid permit application denied.

2018
SHELLFISH AND CULTIVATION

 

Non-native snail Batillaria attramentaria reported (Grason et al. 2018)

2017
2017
major anthropogenic physical disturbance 

 

Columbia River: rehabilitation of Jetty A completed

2016
2016
burrowing shrimp

 

Revised imidicloprid permit application submitted.

 

A Preliminary Aquatic Risk Assessment (RA) to Support the Registration Review of Imidacloprid was released. USEPA.

2015
2015
burrowing shrimp

 

Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the use of imidacloprid to manage burrowing shrimp was issued, followed by a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Waste Discharge Permit (WDOE). Permit for imidacloprid application requested, denied (Doenges et al 2018). The NPDES permit was withdrawn after intense media coverage. WGHOGA.

2015
BURROWING SHRIMP

 

Permit for imidacloprid application requested, denied (Doenges et al 2018).

2014
2014

500-acre trial of imidacloprid in Willapa (Doenges et al 2018). National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit application for imidacloprid for burrowing shrimp submitted (Patten, pers. Comm.)

2013
2013
BURROWING SHRIMP

 

 Burrowing shrimp control with carbaryl discontinued

2013
BURROWING SHRIMP

 

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit work on imidacloprid for burrowing shrimp initiated (Patten, pers. comm.)

2012
2012
burrowing shrimp

 

 Burrowing shrimp control with carbaryl discontinued. Field trials of imidacloprid were detailed in a Sampling and Action Plan (SAP). WSU, UW, PSI, WGHOGA, and WDOE.

2012
Shellfish and Cultivation

 

Zostera japonica regulated as Washington State noxious weed on aquaculture beds permit for chemical control with imazamox

2010
2010
burrowing shrimp

 

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit work on imidacloprid for burrowing shrimp initiated (Patten, pers. Comm.). Burrowing Shrimp Integrated Pest Management Plan updated. WGHOGA. Crop Profile for Bivalve (Oysters, Manila Clams, Geoduck Clams and Mussels) Aquaculture in Washington was developed. WSU, WGHOGA. The Pest Management Strategic Plan (PMSP) for Bivalves in Washington and Oregon was the primary outcome from a planning workshop that was attended by primary stakeholders from all growing regions in Washington and Oregon. Western IPM Center at Oregon State University.

2008
2008 – 2011
burrowing shrimp

 

Federal and State Experimental Use Permits were issued for large scale (50+ ac) field trials of granular and liquid formulations of imidacloprid to assess efficacy, fate and transport, and impacts on sturgeon, crab, and benthic invertebrates. USEPA, WSDA.

2007
2007
burrowing shrimp

 

Burrowing Shrimp Integrated Pest Management Plan updated. WGHOGA. Studies to measure residues of the insecticide imidacloprid (Nuprid 2F) in oyster meat following field applications were begun under the Inter-regional Research Project #4 (IR-4) program for registration of pesticides in minor crops; and using certified Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) personnel and protocols. WSU.

2005
2005
burrowing shrimp

 

Imidacloprid studies conducted for control of burrowing shrimp (Patten, pers. Comm.)

2005–2014
BURROWING SHRIMP

 

Imidacloprid studies conducted for control of burrowing shrimp (Patten, pers. comm.)

2005
shellfish and cultivation

 

43 non-native species reported from Willapa Bay (Wonham and Carlton 2005)

2003
2003
burrowing shrimp

 

The Willapa Bay Grays Harbor Oyster Growers Association (WGHOGA) agreed to settle a legal challenge of the use of carbaryl by successively reducing on the amount of carbaryl applied per year with full termination by 2012. Signatories were the Toxics Coalition, the Ad-hoc Coalition for Willapa Bay, several state agencies, and the WGHOGA. Burrowing Shrimp Integrated Pest Management (IPM) plan released. WGHOGA

2003–Present
spartina

 

Coordinated Imazapyr treatment for Spartina control

2002
2002
burrowing shrimp

 

Imidacloprid residue study conducted in Willapa (Felsot and Ruppert, 2002). The Willapa Bay Grays Harbor Oyster Growers Association (WGHOGA) was required to apply for a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for applications of carbaryl to Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor. WDOE.

2002
burrowing shrimp

 

Imidacloprid residue study conducted in Willapa (Felsot and Ruppert, 2002)

2001
2001
burrowing shrimp

 

The Willapa-Grays Harbor Oyster Growers Association (WGHOGA) voluntarily entered into Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) with several groups to develop an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for burrowing shrimp. An IPM Coordinator was hired and an IPM Committee was formed. WGHOGA, WSDA, WDFW, WDOE, Washington State University (WSU), Washington State Commission on Pesticide Registration (WSCPR), Pacific Coast Shellfish Growers Association (PCSGA), Pacific Shellfish Institute (PSI), the Toxics Coalition and the Ad-hoc Coalition for Willapa Bay.

2000
2000
major anthropogenic physical disturbance

 

Columbia River: 2000s–main channel deepened to 13 m

2000
shellfish and cultivation

 

Eastern softshell clam deposits/death assemblages remain in Grays Harbor south channel, prominent feature alongside oysters and eelgrass (Palacios et al. 2000)

1998
1998
spartina

 

 Imazapyr tested for efficacy on Spartina (Patten 2002)

1998
shellfish and cultivation

 

Non-native green crab Carcinus maenas reported in WB and GH

1997
1997
burrowing shrimp

 

A study commissioned by Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recommended that an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Plan for burrowing shrimp be developed.

1996
1996
burrowing shrimp

 

Studies with imidacloprid initiated to control burrowing shrimp (Doenges et al. 2018)

1996
spartina

 

Application of IPM strategies to Spartina control

1995
1995
spartina

 

WA Department of Agriculture appointed to manage Spartina

1994
1994
legislative action

 

“Rafeedie Decision” affirming tribal shellfishing rights and co-management responsibility to signatory tribes in WA

1993
1993
spartina

 

Publication of the Noxious Emergent Plant Management EIS for Spartina

1992
1992
burrowing shrimp

 

Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement issued for the use of carbaryl. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE). The Burrowing Shrimp Control Committee (BSCC) was formed through the Washington State legislature to develop a plan for continued control and IPM development. The membership consisted of agencies, legislators, tribes, and shellfish farmers.

1990
1990–2003
spartina

 

 Spartina control was attempted via mowing, covering, digging, crushing, disking, tilling, and spraying with glyphosate (Patten 2002). Pacific County, DNR, and WA Sea Grant conduct workshop on Spartina control.

1989
1989
burrowing shrimp

 

Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement issued for the use of carbaryl. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE)

1989
spartina

 

Spartina listed as noxious weed in WA (Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board)

1988
1988
spartina

 

 Spartina Working Group formed via Washington Sea Grant.

1985
1985
burrowing shrimp

 

Final Environmental Impact Statement issued for the use of carbaryl. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE)

1984
1984
major anthropogenic physical disturbance 

 

Columbia River: Revelstoke dam (3rd highest at 152 m) completed

1984
burrowing shrimp

 

Draft Environmental Impact Statement issued for the use of carbaryl. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE)

1983
1983
legislative action

 

State-funded oyster larvae and spatfall monitoring discontinued; Condition Index monitoring continues

1981
1981
burrowing shrimp

 

A Washington State Special Local Needs Permit (24(c)) was included as an additional requirement. Issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA)

1979
1979
spartina

 

WA Dept. of Wildlife recommended eradication of Spartina (Hedge et al. 2003)

1977
1977
shellfish and cultivation

 

Successful hatchery production of oyster larvae; seed imports end from Japan (White et al. 2009)

1974
1974
legislative action

 

“Boldt Decision” affirming tribal fishing rights and co-management responsibility to signatory tribes in WA

1973
1973
burrowing shrimp

 

Additional permits for the use of carbaryl against burrowing shrimp on selected acreage were issued. WDF

1973
major anthropogenic physical disturbance

 

Columbia River: Mica dam (highest at 243 m) completed

1971
1971
major anthropogenic physical disturbance

 

Columbia River: John Day dam completed

1970
1970
major anthropogenic physical disturbance

 

Columbia River: main channel deepened to 12 m

1969
1969
major anthropogenic physical disturbance

 

Columbia River: 56 more pile dikes completed

1968
1968
shellfish and cultivation

 

The eastern softshell clam widely distributed in Willapa Bay (Kincaid 1968).

1965
1965
shellfish and cultivation

 

Japanese oyster drill (Ocinebrellus inornatus) established on several beds in Willapa Bay despite seed inspections at the point of packing in Japan; Eastern oyster drill (Urosalpinx cinerea) also present.

1963
1963
burrowing shrimp

 

The use of carbaryl to manage burrowing shrimp on selected acreage in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor was reviewed and approved. Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), Washington Department of Agriculture (WDA), and United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)

1961
1961
burrowing shrimp

 

The carbamate insecticide carbaryl was selected as the primary tactic for burrowing shrimp control in the coastal estuaries of both Washington and Oregon. Pacific Coast Oyster Growers Association.

1960
1960
BURROWING SHRIMP

 

Burrowing shrimp rendered over 15000 acres unusable for oyster culture (Lindsay 1961). WDF initiates burrowing shrimp control experiments with Sevin (carbaryl), furnace (fuel) oil, orthodichlorobenzene, lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) (Lindsay 1961).

1959
1959
burrowing shrimp

 

Initial harrowing and rolling trials to crush shrimp and their burrows were conducted in Willapa Bay. John Wiegardt Jr.

1957
1957
major anthropogenic physical disturbance

 

Columbia River: The Dalles dam completed

1954
1954
major anthropogenic physical disturbance

 

Columbia River: McNary dam completed

1949
1949
LEGISLATIVE ACTIONS

 

 The “edible clam law” is repealed by the legislature.

1947
1947
LEGISLATIVE ACTIONS

 

Oyster reserve management shifts from Olympia to Pacific oysters (Dumbauld et al. 2011)

1942
1942
Major anthropogenic physical disturbances

 

North Jetty Grays Harbor reconstructed.

 

Columbia River: Grand Coulee dam (2nd highest at 168 m) completed.

1941
1941
SPARTINA

 

Spartina alterniflora positively identified from Willapa National Wildlife Refuge (Sheffer 1945).

1940
1940
Major anthropogenic physical disturbances

 

South Jetty Grays Harbor reconstructed.

 

Columbia River: 79 more pile dikes completed.

 

1939
1939
major anthropogenic physical disturbance

 

Columbia River: North Jetty rehabilitation completed; Jetty A completed to a length of 1.6 km

1937
1937
major anthropogenic physical disturbance

 

Columbia River: Bonneville dam completed

1936
1936
major anthropogenic physical disturbance

 

Columbia River: South Jetty reconstruction completed, 1 km shorter than length in 1913 (Hickson and Rodolf 1950)

1935
1935
LEGISLATIVE ACTIONS

 

Bush-Callow Acts are repealed by the legislature (no additional lands sold).

1930
1930
SHELLFISH AND CULTIVATION

 

Eastern oysters still exist in small numbers in Willapa (Hopkins 1946). 15 growers importing Pacific oyster seed from Japan (Kincaid 1968).

1929
1929
SHELLFISH AND CULTIVATION

 

Baypoint Oyster Farms and three other growers plant Crassostrea gigas in Willapa (Kincaid 1968).

1928
1928
major anthropogenic physical disturbance

 

Columbia River: 81 more pile dikes completed

1928

“Oyster growers have tried various means of defense against these persistent burrowers. But there seems to be as yet no really adequate and at the same time practical method of coping with the marine ‘crayfish.’”

1928
BURROWING SHRIMP

 

Burrowing shrimp are described as a problem for oyster growers; it was hypothesized that the removal of ‘cultch’ substrate during early oyster harvest exposed mud that was subsequently colonized by burrowing shrimp. ‘Boarding’ was used to prevent burrowing shrimp on native oyster Ostrea lurida ground.

1928
SHELLFISH AND CULTIVATION

 

Long Island Oyster Co. imports C. gigas to Willapa Bay.

1920
1920
major anthropogenic physical disturbance

 

Columbia River: 17 pile dikes completed

1919
1919
LEGISLATIVE ACTION

 

The ‘edible clam law’ is passed to allow growing shellfish other than oysters on Bush/Callow lands.

1919
SHELLFISH AND CULTIVATION

 

WDF identifies excess oysters in reserves to sell; oyster growers successfully halt sale from reserves (WDF 1920, Washington State Fish Commissioner Annual Reports, per Brady Blake). Eastern oyster culture crashed, no causative agent found (Kincaid 1968).

1917
1917
major anthropogenic physical disturbance

 

Columbia River: North Jetty completed to a length of 4 km

1916
1916
Major anthropogenic physical disturbance

 

 North Jetty Grays Harbor completed.

1915
1915
major anthropogenic physical disturbance

 

Columbia River: Celio Canal opened

1913
1913
major anthropogenic physical disturbance

 

Columbia River: South Jetty extended 4 km (Hickson and Rodolf, 1950)

1913
SHELLFISH AND CULTIVATION

 

 Willapa oystermen request that reserves not be open for harvest (WDF 1919, Washington State Fish Commissioner Annual Reports, per Brady Blake).

1912
1912
SHELLFISH AND CULTIVATION

 

20,000 Japanese oysters planted in Hood Canal (Smith, 1914)

1911
1911
SPARTINA

 

First observation of what was likely Spartina off Oysterville (Sheffer 1945).

1904
1904

“Japanese oysters are to be experimented with by local oystermen. A shipment of 100 pounds came on the oriental liner Nicomedia consigned to A. L. Bush & Sons of Bay Center, Wash. They came from Japan, and are known as the Kanagawa variety.

Officials of the Portland and Asiatic Steamship company state that the firm procured the oysters with which to make an experiment…J.W. Ransom procured some of the same sort of oysters last year, and they were planted in Shoalwater bay by an oysterman of that place. As yet he has not heard the results of the experiment, but he states that fully 50 per cent of the oysters lived and grew….”

 
The Oregon Daily Journal, Nov. 14 1904. 
1904

 “A few more or less successful attempts have been made to introduce the Japanese oyster into our waters.”

 

Kershaw, 1904

1903
1903

“The Nahcotta Point Oyster company has been organized in this city with Spokane, Seattle and Rossland capital. The company owns 160 acres of oyster beds on Willapa harbor near Oysterville, Pacific county, this state. Heretofore the seed oyster has been shipped from New Haven, Conn., and transplanted on the coast. It Is the purpose of the new company to import the seed direct from Japan. Dan P. Bagnell of this city is one of the directors.”

The Spokane Press, Number 248, 22 August 1903

1903

“It is reported that during the past winter a considerable consignment of oysters from Japan was planted in Washington waters.”

Bowers, 1905. Company Is Formed to Raise Oysters.

1903
SHELLFISH AND CULTIVATION

 

20,000 gallons of eastern oyster seed shipped to Willapa Bay.

1903
LEGISLATIVE ACTIONS

 

 Washington State Oyster Commission established.

1903
SHELLFISH AND CULTIVATION

 

12 carloads of Japanese oysters and 1 of eastern oysters planted in Puget Sound; 21 carloads of Eastern oysters planted in Willapa (Kershaw 1904). Japanese oysters planted in Willapa (Smith, 1914)

1902
1902
SHELLFISH AND CULTIVATION

 

4000 gallons of eastern oyster seed imported to Willapa. State fish commissioner calls for consideration of importation of Japanese oysters (Kershaw 1902). Washington State Fish Commissioner reports that eastern oysters will not propagate in WA due to temperature after a series of experiments (Doane, in Kershaw 1902). Eastern oysters successfully propagated in Willapa Bay in the vicinity of the Naselle River (Kincaid 1928).