Environmental Threats

More than just a cute face: What otters can tell us about the health of the environment

December 27, 2022

The River Otter Project used community science to shed light on contamination in the Lower Duwamish River

By Andrea Richter-Sanchez, WSG Science Communications Fellow


North American river otter. Photo by Diana Robinson.

“Otters are an easy way to engage people to care about the environment. If there is one thing that almost everyone can agree on, it’s how cute otters are,” says Michelle Wainstein, a conservation biologist and lead of Otter Spotter at the Woodland Park Zoo. This project used North American river otters as “biomonitors” — organisms that can tell us about the health and quality of the local environment —  to study the pollutants in the Lower Duwamish Waterway. Gathering this information, however, requires researchers to focus on the side of otters that’s a little, well, less cute: they analyze the otters’ scat. 

The Lower Duwamish Waterway is a five-mile portion of the Duwamish River that flows northward into Elliott Bay. Because of all the pollution that entered this area prior to the passage of the Clean Water Act in 1970, it was designated a superfund site by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2001. Otters are a great fit as biomonitors because they are at the top of their food chain, do not travel too far within their home range, and live long enough to accumulate certain persistent contaminants. The results of the River Otter Project, recently published in the journal Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, demonstrate that the scat samples had the highest contaminant concentrations inside the superfund site, with levels decreasing as the samples collected moved away from the site.  

From 2016 to 2019, Woodland Park Zoo encouraged citizen scientists to report river otter sightings in Washington via an online platform that was funded in part by Washington Sea Grant. Sightings reported along the Lower Duwamish Waterway helped Wainstein and her team find scat samples along the river bank for their research. Once they found otter scat, they were able to go back to that same location to get more samples because river otters usually visit the same place repeatedly to defecate. By testing the otters’ scat, the researchers could analyze what types of pollutants were bioaccumulating in the otters, and at what concentrations. 

The research revealed that the exposure to PCBs and PAHs, chemicals that are known carcinogens, was among the highest ever published for wild river otters: 70% of the samples in the superfund site exceeded established levels of concern. Due to these high levels, otters may be impacted by contaminant loads in the Lower Duwamish Waterway. 

This work could not have been done without the community members who helped report otter sightings with the Otter Spotter project. In fact, the Otter Spotter project was so successful in getting the community involved that Woodland Park Zoo broadened the effort into Carnivore Spotter, now part of the Seattle Urban Carnivore Project, which aims to explore how mammalian carnivores live and interact with people across urban and suburban areas in the Seattle region.   

The project also offered new directions for future conservation work. “On a personal level, my favorite part of the project was discovering how beautiful and pristine the upper Green River is,” Wainstein says. The Duwamish and Green are sections of the same river. “I had no idea we had such an amazing natural resource so close to home. So on a professional level, it was also important to be working to help protect it. The otter scat samples from the Green River portion of the study show us what healthy ecosystems look like, and hopefully otters can help inform a successful restoration project down in the Lower Duwamish Waterway.” 

Photo by Jon Nelson.

The EPA recently approved a remediation project to clean up the Lower Duwamish Waterway. While the EPA has their own metrics for analyzing pollutants in water bodies, Wainstein’s research shows that river otters are excellent biomonitors of food web and environmental contaminant exposure. Wainstein believes the EPA should use otters as one of their metrics for testing the ecological health of the Lower Duwamish Waterway, and potentially other aquatic systems. 

Wainstein hopes that this project can be expanded in the future through using technology to extract DNA from otter scat. This way, the researchers could tag an otter to a scat sample and track otter movements in order to understand the population dynamics of these important aquatic mammals and their role as biomonitors.  

As Wainstein’s research shows, river otters are more than just a cute face. We can use these aquatic mammals to help better understand the health of our environment in order to help humans and creatures alike — so long as we’re willing to pick up their scat.


Washington Sea Grant, based at the University of Washington, helps people and marine life thrive through research, technical expertise and education supporting the responsible use and conservation of coastal ecosystems. The National Sea Grant College Program is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce.

Join the conversation: @WASeaGrant and Facebook.com/WaSeaGrant.

Ocean Acidification Outreach, Presentations, Webinars

Meg Chadsey, Ocean Acidification Specialist

WSG has responded to the governor’s Washington State Blue Ribbon Panel on Ocean Acidification by offering print and online outreach materials on acidification, conducting frequent public presentations, and working with NOAA to produce monthly webinars.
An online collection of ocean acidification (OA) curricula for K-12 classrooms is available and, in partnership with the Puget Sound Restoration Fund and Suquamish Tribe, WSG is helping the Bainbridge Island School District to incorporate OA course and fieldwork into their high school environmental science classes.

SoundToxins Monitoring for Harmful Algal Blooms

Teri King, Marine Water Quality Specialist


The SoundToxins partnership was conceived and initiated by the Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC-NOAA) and is now directed by WSG. SoundToxin’s roster of partners organizations has grown from four in 2006 to 35 in 2020, with some partners monitoring more than one site along Puget Sound. The SoundToxins program aims to provide sufficient warning of harmful algal bloom (HAB) events to enable early or selective harvesting of seafood, which minimizes the risk to human health and reduces economic losses to community stakeholders, such as Puget Sound fisheries and shellfish growers. SoundToxins is a robust science project involving more than a hundred trained community, tribal, industry, and agency volunteers that regularly document unusual bloom events and new species entering the Salish Sea. WSG specialists provide volunteer coordination, training and communication services for SoundToxins.

To ensure volunteers have current information to help with monitoring, the SoundToxins Manual was revised in 2016. While much of the material is highly technical, this manual also can help educate lay readers about HABs.

Early warning of HABs and adaptive monitoring:

SoundToxins is assisting the State Department of Health by providing early warning of harmful algal bloom events with phytoplankton monitoring. The SoundToxins partnership, through its weekly monitoring of phytoplankton at sites around Puget Sound, enables state officials to target shellfish monitoring at those sites with the greatest risk of HAB toxicity. If you are interested in becoming a volunteer or receiving additional information:

WSG Crab Team: Green Crab Monitoring Program

Jeff Adams, Marine Ecologist

The European green crab (Carcinus maenas) is considered one of the world’s 100 worst invasive species. Its impacts on the Washington Coast appear to have been minimal to date, but its potential effects on inland ecosystems are uncertain.

Following the discovery of green crab just west of Victoria, B.C., in 2012, WSG teamed up with the Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife and other partners to establish a volunteer monitoring program — the WSG Crab Team — in Puget Sound, the San Juan Islands and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. This program works in tandem with an outreach campaign to increase the likelihood of detecting green crab infestations early.

After the WSG Crab Team detected the first green crab on San Juan Island in 2016, they expanded to 54 monitoring sites. Additional green crab were subsequently found in Padilla Bay, Sequim Bay and Whidbey Island by WSG Crab Team and volunteers or professional agency or tribal staff that were advised by the team. These are the first confirmed captures of  green crab along Washington’s inland shorelines. Such early detection offers the best chance for controlling the green crab and protecting important natural resources.

Learn more about preventing a crustacean invasion.

Enjoy this story map for more indepth information.

If you are interested in becoming a volunteer monitor:

WSG launches new Pumpout Washington website

April 6, 2023

Visit the redesigned website at pumpoutwashington.org

By Emma Duckworth, WSG Undergraduate Science Communications Fellow

As the weather continues to warm, Puget Sound boaters are gearing up for another beautiful season. Whether it be their first time on the water or their tenth season in the Sound, all kinds of boaters are preparing their vessels for spring, and Washington Sea Grant (WSG) is preparing new ways to educate local recreational boaters on water safety. One new addition to our plethora of resources has been a redesign of the Pumpout Washington website

Pumpout Washington is a go-to program for boaters to learn about how to comply with the No Discharge Zone (NDZ), a policy that bans any sewage from being discharged from boats in Puget Sound waters. The new Pumpout Washington website is easy to navigate, with educational resources on the importance of no discharge zones, a live map of where mobile pumpout stations are located, and resources for marina managers to provide their customers with pumpout adapters and other resources. 

The new site provides resources on the history of the Puget Sound no discharge zone (NDZ), explaining how it prevents contamination of our waters and protects both humans and aquaculture from the hazardous effects of discharged sewage. The website even outlines the boundaries of the NDZ and maps out local pumpout stations, showing boaters exactly where they can safely discharge their waste. Before a big weekend on the water, boaters can pre-plan their pit stops to pumpout and maximize their fun. In addition to a map of permanent pumpout stations, this new website also includes a new live map of where mobile pumpout stations are located. Mobile pumpouts are vessels that move between different marinas in Puget Sound. This map shows their most recent location in real-time, giving boaters more freedom to pump out when the station is nearby.  

While the new pumpout website is easy to use for recreational boaters, it’s just as convenient for marina managers to take advantage of the resources available through the Pumpout Washington program. Under the Clean Vessel Act Grant Program, federal funds are allocated to disperse pump out resources to recreational boaters, like pumpout adapters and the construction of pumpout stations. The redesigned Pumpout Washington website makes accessing these materials convenient for marina managers, linking grant applications and providing educational videos on pump out station maintenance. The site caters to both managers and customers, encouraging safe discharging and making pump out stations accessible to all. 

Aaron Barnett, WSG’s boating program specialist, manages Pumpout Washington. He works with boaters and marina managers to promote the pump out program and ensure that Puget Sound waters remain safe and clean. 

“[The Pumpout Washington website] is the go-to place for all things pumpout related such as where, why and how to pumpout,  including information for marina managers of pump out equipment grants”

The launch of this new website increases transparency about the goals and regulations of the Pumpout Washington program, allowing managers and boaters alike to do their part in keeping the Puget Sound waters safe and clean. Easier to navigate and complete with new resources like educational videos and maps, the site makes pumping out convenient and efficient, allowing boaters to spend more time on the water. Help keep our waters clean and check out the Pumpout Washington website today!


Washington Sea Grant, based at the University of Washington, helps people and marine life thrive through research, technical expertise and education supporting the responsible use and conservation of coastal ecosystems. The National Sea Grant College Program is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce.


Join the conversation: @WASeaGrant and Facebook.com/WaSeaGrant.